Although in recent years there has been increased attention to the effect of terrorism on the tourism industry, tourism has long been affected by terrorism, war, political crisis, and natural calamities. These types of crises contribute to the volatility of tourism as an industry. For many developing countries, travel and tourism constitute the largest source of income and contribution to GDP. In many of these countries, intergroup conflicts arising from political ideology or religious beliefs give rise to vulnerability to terrorist attacks or civil wars, which has adverse effects on tourism and the economy as a whole.

According to Adam Blake and M. Thea Sinclair (2002):

The contribution of tourism and travel to both industrialized and developing countries is now so great that any downturns in ...

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