In September 2000, 189 nations adopted the UN Millennium Declaration at the Millennium Summit, recognizing that they had, in the words of the declaration, “a collective responsibility to uphold the principles of human dignity, equality and equity at the global level” (UN, 2000, p. 1). In particular, they made the promise to free people from extreme poverty. This pledge became the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). These goals are: (1) eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieve universal primary education; (3) promote gender equality and empower women; (4) reduce child mortality; (5) improve maternal health; (6) combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases; (7) ensure environmental sustainability; and (8) develop a global partnership for development.

Tourism, as one of the world’s largest and fastest growing sectors, is ...

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