Senegal is one of the poorest countries in the world, with a Human Development Index at 0.470 that put the country in the 154th position among 187 nations in 2012. An increase in number of poor people and an unequal distribution of poverty have characterized Senegalese society for the last two decades. According to the Enquête de Suivi de la Pauvreté au Sénégal (EPPS), the Senegal poverty survey conducted in 2005, 51 percent of Senegalese live under the poverty threshold, with geographical and spatial disparities.

Research on poverty in Senegal is characterized by a majority of studies that tackle economic dimensions of poverty according to a utilitarian approach. The research seeks to understand poverty as indicated by the logic of comparative statistics. Poverty is defined as ...

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