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San Marino

The Republic of San Marino is a landlocked country surrounded by Italy that has been an independent republic since 301 c.e.—the oldest continuous republic in the world. The founder of the republic was Saint Marinus, a stonemason, and during the Middle Ages the stone quarries in San Marino became important to the local economy. San Marino for many years remained relatively poor but managed to maintain its independence, although there were serious challenges to this from Cesare Borgia in 1503 and Cardinal Giulio Alberoni in 1739. Napoleon Bonaparte was much impressed by San Marino and offered the nation more land, which it declined. Giuseppe Garibaldi took refuge in the republic in 1849, and as a result, when Italy was unified, Garibaldi was keen on San ...

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