The Sultanate of Oman is located on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. The country has modest oil and gas reserves that have contributed to its wealth, as well as a growing tourism sector.

The capital of Oman, the city of Muscat, was an important trading port in early modern history and was captured by the Portuguese in 1507. The Portuguese massacred most of the citizens, pillaging the city and then using it as a base until they surrendered it in 1650.

Muscat rose in importance again in the 19th century, but there were regular conflicts in the interior, often over control of the trade routes. Western travelers saw the nomadic people of the interior as poor because they lacked many possessions and were often in ...

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