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Mexico

To a certain extent the roots of current Mexican levels of poverty were inherited from the colonial system established by Spain during three centuries, from 1521 to 1821. This colonial system was not rigid and social mobility was possible. However, upward mobility, especially with respect to education and church and state service, was restricted. Despite high mortality rates, there was economic growth, mostly during the last three decades of the 1700s, and thus the population expanded. However, the majority of the people were isolated, living in small communities outside the markets. The Catholic Church had the duty of taking care of the homeless and destitute people.

After the proclamation of Mexican independence until before the period of Lázaro Cárdenas’ presidency, the consensus is that the material ...

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