The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is located in western Europe, sharing borders with Belgium, France, and Germany. It has the second-highest gross domestic product (GDP) in the world when adjusted for purchasing power parity.

The origins of Luxembourg as an independent state go back to medieval times, when the area was ruled by the House of Luxembourg, and the place was mentioned in a church document from 963. From the mid-15th through the late 18th centuries, however, the Luxembourg dynasty lost control of the country, and the area was ruled by several other dynasties including the Habsburgs and the Bourbons. Luxembourg was formally annexed by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1797.

Luxembourg became independent from France in 1815, and its independence was formally ratified in 1867 after the ...

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