Ireland is an island located in the British Isles. The Republic of Ireland shares its ancient land mass with the citizens of Northern Ireland, who in turn pledge their allegiance to the United Kingdom with England, Scotland, and Wales. Spain lies to the far south of the island, contiguous with the far western borders of Normandy, Brittany, and Belgium. Income Distribution Theories lies to the far northwest of its shores, and the Scandinavian nations to the far northeast.

For millennia, the British Isles participated in an extensive maritime system of trade; by various routes across the English Channel, settlers and merchants supported the transfer of cereals and domesticated animals to Great Britain and Ireland. There is evidence of stable Neolithic settlement dating from the 4th millennia ...

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