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Industrial Revolution

The span of the Industrial Revolution was one of the major phases in the history of human development. The following statement by David Landes (1969) gives an authentic account of the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in England:

In the 18th century, a series of inventions transformed the manufacture of cotton in England and gave rise to a new mode of production—the factory system. During these years, other branches of industry affected comparable advances, and all these together, mutually reinforcing one another, made possible further gains on an ever-widening front. The abundance and variety of these innovations almost defy compilation, but they may be subsumed under three principles: the substitution of machines—rapid, regular, precise, tireless—for human skill and effort; the substitution of inanimate for animate sources ...

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