Environmentalism, American Radical

Radical environmentalism is a tendency within the more broadly defined environmental movement that supports direct action in defense of the Earth and opposes reformism and co-optation. The movement and political framework borrows heavily from anarchism, Marxism and other critiques of neoliberalism, feminism (especially ecofeminism), and animal liberation. Historically, such ideas have their national roots in the writings of individualist anarchist Henry David Thoreau, who in 1854 authored Walden; or, Life in the Woods, which explores the author’s personal journal into the world of simple living, self-sufficiency, and personal autonomy.

The political movement that surrounds radical environmentalism can be traced back to the 1960s, when Earth and animal-rights activists began to develop new visions for ecojustice and the treatment of nonhuman animals. Around this time, activists and ...

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