Deprivation Index

The Deprivation Index is a tool for measuring diverse dimensions of poverty. The dissatisfaction with the one-dimensional measure of income poverty that ignores the deprivations of several other capabilities and opportunities necessitated development of the Multidimensional Deprivation Index. Notwithstanding several efforts, development of such a broad deprivation measure is still in its infancy. Very often, the robustness of a Deprivation Index is judged against its reliability, contextual relevance, and the usefulness of its metrics.

Table 1 Domain and indicators of HPI-I and HPI-II

Domains of Deprivations




Percentage of adults who are illiterate

Adults lacking functional literacy skills


Percentage of people not expected to survive to age 40

Probability at birth of not surviving to age 60


Percentage of people without access to safe water, underweight children (under 5), and percentage of people ...

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