The Republic of Chad is a landlocked Sahelian country with about 12.45 million inhabitants spread over 500,000 square miles. The low population density, the mainly arid to semi-arid climate, the sociopolitical history involving three decades of civil war before 1990, and extremely poor governance since that time constitute a tough starting point for economic and social development. In addition, various rebellions in 1998, 2006, and 2007 destabilized the country, although oil production recently began, and Chad started exporting oil in 2004. During recent years, Chad has experienced significant economic growth, with an increase in the state’s budget. However, because of a government in the hands of an ethnic minority with distinct nepotism and endemic corruption, there are almost no distribution impacts of the improved economic ...

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