The term utopia originated with Sir Thomas More, who used it to describe a fictional island with his ideal society in a book with the same title in 1516. Drawing on this idea, utopian socialists believed that perfect societies could be created through intentional intervention and planning. Reacting to growing economic and social inequalities created by the forces of industrialization and urbanization in the 19th century, utopian socialists envisioned a more egalitarian world built on principles of solidarity and collectivism. Some utopian socialists, like Henri Saint-Simon and Auguste Comte, were more moderate, and believed in the use of scientific knowledge and deliberate planning to advance social improvement. Others, like Robert Owen and Charles Fourier, were more radical, and drafted elaborate blueprints to organize perfect societies.

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