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It would be hard to argue that the impact of warfare on health is positive. People get wounded, disabled, or sick, often affected for life. The health impact of war is complex on both military and civilian communities. It is not easy to quantify as it requires counterfactual analysis to try to determine what would have happened had the war not occurred. Warfare destroys infrastructure and spreads diseases. It also allows for innovation and breaks down social barriers. Its impact is both immediate and long term. The last veteran of World War I (1914–1918) who had served in the trenches died in 2009, 91 years after armistice.

Population

The obvious impact is population changes. The first census after the American Civil War (1861–1865) found that the population ...

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