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In 1970, German Federal Minister of Defense Helmut Schmidt initiated a political reform that led to the establishment of two institutions of higher learning for military officers. On October 3, 1972, Helmut-Schmidt-Universität, Universität der Bundeswehr Hamburg (Helmut-Schmidt University, University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg) and Universität der Bundeswehr München (Federal Armed Forces University Munich) were founded to educate officers and officer candidates in civilian degrees, maintain a higher qualified officer corps, and offer new incentives to join the military. Prior to enrollment at one of the two schools, a student must complete officer training and commit to 13 years of military service. As of 2002, a small number of civilians and international students, as well as female students, have enrolled. Before addressing each of ...

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