In social relations, any chaotic situation resulting in disorder is experienced as a crisis by people, states, governments, and organizations. A crisis also means an emergency event that is expected to lead to a dangerous and unstable situation adversely affecting an individual, group, community, civic organization, government, or society. Any crisis is supposed to be negative, when changes—political, societal, economic, security, and environmental—start occurring suddenly with no prior warning. Thus, a crisis happens when a complex system either starts functioning poorly or breaks down abruptly. Then, it requires an urgent decision to be made to control the situation. The defining characteristics of crisis include that a situation must be unexpected and specific; it is not a routine event, and it has a high degree ...

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