Citizenship has two different historical traditions. The first tradition is the civil republican tradition, which first appeared in the city-states of ancient Greece. Citizenship, according to this tradition, could only be applied to property owners, excluding women, slaves, and the poor. As Aristotle (384–322 bce) asserts in Politics, “Man [in the city-state] is by nature a political animal.” By saying so, Aristotle argues that political participation is a civil duty. Therefore, as political animals, citizens in city-states should actively participate in public affairs.

Compared with the civil republican tradition, the liberal tradition that emerged in the 17th century stresses the rights of citizens. According to political theorists such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who laid the foundations for liberal theories of citizenship, civil ...

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