Belgium (c. 1830, Dutch: Koninkrijk België; French: Royaume de Belgique) is a western European country; its capital is Brussels (founded in 979; population 1.14 million in 2012). Belgium is both a federal parliamentary and constitutional monarchy and is one of the founding members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; 1949) and the European Union (1958). Its area is about 11,800 square miles, and it borders France, Germany, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. According to the 2014 census, the estimated population of Belgium was 11.2 million, which is 60% Flemish (Dutch-speaking) and 40% Walloon (French-speaking), along with a minor German-speaking group (eastern part).

The early Belgae peoples of the German Rhineland populated the northern part of Gaul; they became Roman allies in 120 ce. As the ...

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