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The Balkan Wars of 1912–1913 were among the more destructive wars of the 20th century. A loose alliance between Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, and Montenegro was formed in the summer of 1912. The aim of this alliance, the Balkan League, was to eject the Ottoman Empire from the Balkans and divide up the conquered territory. The Balkan League attacked in October of 1912, driving back Ottoman forces on most fronts. Victory for the Balkan powers was all but achieved by the winter of 1912–1913. By May of 1913, a peace treaty was signed, and it appeared as though the war was over, but conflict began anew in June of 1913 as the former allies in the Balkan League turned against Bulgaria. The Ottoman Empire renewed the ...

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