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Australia, known officially as the Commonwealth of Australia, is a geographically large country comprising six states and two territories (New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania, the Northern Territory, and the Australian Capital Territory), as well as numerous outlying islands. Australia’s capital city is Canberra, and its political system is a combination of a constitutional monarchy and a federal parliamentary democracy. As of 2012, Australia has a population of approximately 22.7 million people who come from a rich variety of ethnic backgrounds.

Australia has a long history of involvement in wars, which, in turn, has had enormous cultural and societal consequences. For over 40,000 years, warring indigenous Australian tribes—also known as Australian Aboriginals—fought against one another, often for ceremonial purposes or to ...

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