Second-track—or multitrack and unofficial—diplomacy encompasses all informal efforts at peace building and sustainable development to prevent war or restore society after war through the building of culture and institutions that sustain peace, as well as conciliation—talking across division during conflict. Second-track diplomacy stands in contrast to first-track diplomacy, or traditional and formal international diplomacy, where officially designated representatives, such as heads of state and ambassadors, come together for political reasons. High-profile nongovernmental organizations and citizen activists are often publicized with unofficial diplomacy. A wide range of less visible stakeholders, however, can be quite influential in nonrepresentative activities and forums. In many conflicts, the stakeholders are not publicized. Those interested in scrutinizing multitrack diplomacy must ask: Who is acting to prevent conflict? Who is acting to ...

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