Thailand, or the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia bordered by Burma, Cambodia, Laos, and the Gulf of Thailand. In 2015, its estimated population was nearly 68 million. The formation of contemporary Thailand involved several centuries of politics and war.

Formation of Contemporary Borders

By the 14th century, multiple Thai states developed in the north, central, and southern areas of Thailand, which arose largely at the expense of the existing Khmer states. The Kingdom of Siam, with its capital at Ayutthaya, was the preeminent Thai state from the 15th century.

The 14th century through the early 19th century was marked by frequent wars between the Thai states, Burmese-led armies, and the waning Khmer Angkor Empire and its successor Khmer states. Siam dominated the Thai ...

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