Testosterone, the best-known androgen, belongs to the group of steroid hormones and is responsible primarily for masculine characteristics. The sex hormone is secreted by the testes in males and ovaries, adrenal glands, and, during pregnancy, the placenta in females. Apart from masculinization, it regulates several other significant functions in both sexes. Testosterone connects with specialized receptors in muscles and male sex organs and enlarges them; lowers the voice; is responsible for bodily hair growth, bone development and strengthening, maintenance of sex drive, cognitive abilities, and the production of sperm. At the behavioral level, testosterone accounts for much of the male predispositions toward aggressive behavior, competitiveness, and fight for status, contributing to poor impulse control. Testosterone is often called the “rape and violence hormone” and ...

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