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San Marino, or the Most Serene Republic of San Marino, is a small micronation situated in the Apennine Mountains of northern Italy. Consisting of only 24 square miles, it is Europe’s third-smallest nation. Since its founding in 301 by Saint Marinus as a refuge for persecuted Christians, it has been at a near-constant state of peace. Only a handful of times have the peaceful lives of the Sammarinese people been interrupted.

Conflicts

During the 13th century, the Bishops of Montefeltro, Rimini, and Ravenna all made various attempts to obtain control of San Marino, none of which were successful. In 1503, Cesare Borgia, Prince of Romagna and son of Pope Alexander VI, occupied San Marino for six months until the new Pope, Giulio II, intervened, forcing Cesare ...

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