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Presbyterianism and Congregationalism are two movements and schools of thought within the Protestant Reformation, as well as the Reformed church denominations worldwide that bear the name of each movement. Derived from the doctrines of theologians such as John Calvin, each movement and its denominations reflect distinct theological perspectives and institutional features as well as different stances and historical experiences with war, peace, and social justice.

Both Presbyterianism and Congregationalism trace roots to French theologian and jurist John Calvin (1509–1564). Calvin first became a pastor at the nascent Protestant enclave in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1536. Two features of the emerging Calvinism were a unique doctrinal focus on the sinful nature of humankind and a rejection of Catholic bishops in favor of the older practice of using presbyteries, ...

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