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Poland (Polish: Polska) is lowland country, forming part of the great eastern European plain. Its capital is Warsaw (officially chronicled in 1313; the population is 1.7 million according to the 2012 census). The country is a parliamentary republic, with an area of nearly 121,000 square miles. To the north, the lagoon-lined Baltic Sea coast (which borders Russian Kaliningrad Oblast and part of Lithuania) includes the mouths of the Vistula and Oder Rivers.

Poland borders Germany on the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, and Ukraine and Belarus to the east. In 2011, the estimated population of Poland was 38.2 million people, including 94% of ethnic Poles along with small fractions of Kashubians (northern Slavic ethnic group), Germans, Belarusians, and others. The official language ...

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