The term patriotism refers to an individual’s feeling of attachment to his or her country and its territory. A simple definition of patriotism is love of one’s country. Patriots are obliged to defend the interests of their country, out of love and/or duty. Alongside this state patriotism, there is also an “ordinary” patriotism emanating from civil society, even though, in many countries, the spread of patriotic values is also perpetuated through state education, religion, and mass media. If the patriotism of the 21st century takes on various forms (economic patriotism, sporting patriotism, etc.), for a long time, it was directly associated with war.

Indeed, in many countries, both in the West and elsewhere, participation in war was universally considered the primary mode of demonstrating one’s patriotism. ...

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