For military strategists, Panama is one of the planet’s hottest points. Positioned as the only terrestrial northern access to South America and hosting the tiniest isthmus separating the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Panama has been a focal target over the centuries for those interested in controlling the natural resources and the geostrategic advantage in Central America.

Tribal Conflicts in Precolonial Times

The settlement of Panama started during the Paleo-Indian Period (10,000–8000 BCE), when bands of hunters coming from North America discovered its territory. Archeological data demonstrate that sedentary life emerged between 3000 and 2000 BCE, associated with the development of regional exchange networks and the strengthening of small chiefdoms provided with a complex social organization and with an efficient military disposal.

Despite the presence of weaponry found ...

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