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Throughout its history, Mongolia has been directly involved in wars for control of Eurasia. Today, Mongolia is positioned between Eurasian powers Russia and China. Both countries treat Mongolia as a strategic buffer, while Japan, the United States, and Europe have also included Mongolia in their security relationships. Mongolia’s own quest for security has led it into alliances that have dramatically reshaped its politics, economy, and society. Since the Cold War, Mongolia has been able to more actively seek relations with a wide range of “third neighbors” to decrease reliance on the two regional powers, Russia and China. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) have played a third-neighbor role since the international socialist economic system’s collapse, while ...

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