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Relationships With Family as Trans Adults

For many trans people, families can be fraught. Certainly, some family members, including parents, siblings, grandparents, and other extended family members, can be affirming and inclusive. Such affirmation and inclusion are clearly related to positive mental health benefits for trans people. But for many trans people, family members can be a primary source of discrimination. Discrimination, including violence, from family members is related to adverse outcomes for trans people. By contrast, and echoing broader social norms whereby animals are often considered part of the family, trans people report positive kinship relationships with animal companions (i.e., domesticated animals who live in the home). Such relationships can help to mitigate experiences of marginalization by other family members. Research on relationships with family for trans adults has rarely ...

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