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The ability of trans high school athletes in the United States to compete according to how they identify their gender began to emerge as a highly contentious issue in the 2010s, as out trans students started to participate in organized sports and, in some instances, bested their cis counterparts. The debate has largely involved trans women athletes on the basis of the unproven assertion that they have an unfair competitive advantage over cis women because of having been assigned male at birth. Policies for trans participation in sport vary by state and school district, as well as by presidential administration, and seemingly the issue will ultimately be resolved by the U.S. Supreme Court. Public opinion is also likely to play a role in the outcome, ...

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