Genderism is the cultural belief or ideology that gender nonconformity or incongruence is negative. It is a bias that results from believing that gender is a binary construct, that someone is either a man or a woman. This ideology is now widely understood as oppressive and harmful, not just to gender-nonconforming people but also to gender-conventional people because it limits their ability to assume different gender roles. Genderism is not equivalent to transphobia, which is more of an interpersonal construct. In contrast, genderism is a cultural phenomenon existing mainly at the level of ideology, institutions, society, and culture. Although the term genderism has been used since the 1970s in sociology, it was mostly used as a gender-based alternative to sexism; the current use of the ...

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