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Gender-Affirming Surgeries: Men, Top

Gender-affirming surgeries for men are generally divided into two categories: top surgeries and bottom surgeries. Top surgeries are those used to create a more masculine-appearing chest. Most transmasculine top surgeries take the form of masculinizing chest reconstruction, a process somewhat similar to a double mastectomy. Some nonbinary transmasculine individuals, however, choose to undergo breast reduction instead.

Chest Dysphoria

Many transmasculine individual experience chest dysphoria—discomfort related to having a chest/breasts that are perceived as feminine, either by the individual or by those with whom they interact. Having a larger chest can make it more difficult to present as male and may make it more likely that the individual will be misgendered by others. This can increase the risk of gender minority stress and result in depression, anxiety, and ...

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