Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health and disease in populations. Epidemiologists ask, Who gets sick, where, when, and why? Trans individuals and populations were largely invisible in published epidemiologic studies until the 2010s. Trans status was not ascertained in most of the data sources used in epidemiology—and still is not, in most places and cases. Furthermore, early epidemiologic research often focused on the prevalence of transness (classified as a psychiatric condition) rather than on the health of trans populations. The rapid growth in epidemiologic research on trans people may be attributed to two interrelated processes: the depathologization of trans identity and the increased recognition of gender identity as a dimension of human diversity that is associated with health because of ...

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