The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Psychology


Edited by: Harold L. Miller Jr.

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      Editorial Board


      Harold L. Miller, Jr. Brigham Young University

      Editorial Board

      Susan T. Fiske Princeton University

      Kathy A. Hanisch Iowa State University

      Christopher H. Ramey University of Kansas

      Tomi-Ann Roberts Colorado College

      Kurt Salzinger Hofstra University

      Brent Slife Brigham Young University

      List of Entries

      Reader’s Guide

      The Reader’s Guide is provided to assist readers in locating articles on related topics. It classifies articles into 21 general topical categories: Cognition, Consciousness, Culture, Development, Emotion, Evolution, Gender, Health, Intelligence, Language, Learning, Motivation, Neuroscience, Organizations, Perception, Personality, Psychopathology, Research Methods, Sensation, Sociality, and Therapy. Entries may be listed under more than one topic.

      About the Editor

      Harold L. “Hal” Miller, Jr., is a professor of psychology in the Department of Psychology at Brigham Young University. He received his BS degree in psychology from Arizona State University and then studied with Richard Herrnstein at Harvard University, where he received a PhD in experimental psychology. He joined the psychology faculty of Brigham Young University, where he has remained. In addition to a full teaching load throughout his career, he has maintained an active lab in the experimental analysis of behavior and behavioral economics and has been an educational consultant in the United States and China. Among his scholarly interests is the philosophy of the behavioral sciences. He has coauthored an introductory psychology textbook and has served as a member of the board of editors and as associate editor of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. Currently, he is a member of the Provo (UT) City Municipal Council.


      Henk Aarts Utrecht University

      Tiziano Agostini University of Trieste

      Tracy Packiam Alloway University of North Florida

      Martina Amanzio University of Turin

      Ben Ambridge University of Liverpool

      Elissa M. Aminoff Carnegie Mellon University

      Craig A. Anderson Iowa State University

      Sharon Anderson Colorado State University

      Allison J. Applebaum Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

      Dan Ariely Duke University

      Christopher J. Armitage University of Manchester

      Christopher D. Aults Florida Atlantic University

      Melanie M. Ayres University of Wisconsin–River Falls

      Heesoon Bai Simon Fraser University

      Gregory F. Ball University of Maryland

      Jacques Balthazart University of Liege

      Brandon Balzer Carr University of California, Santa Cruz

      Michael Bamberg Guangdong University of Foreign Studies and Clark University

      Claudio Barbaranelli Sapienza University of Rome

      Christopher P. Barlett Gettysburg College

      David H. Barlow Boston University

      Sally H. Barlow Brigham Young University

      Kiera Bartlett University of Manchester

      William M. Baum University of New Hampshire

      Daphne Bavelier University of Geneva

      Hall P. Beck Appalachian State University

      D. Vaughn Becker Arizona State University

      Kreshnik Begolli University of California, Irvine

      Suzanne T. Bell DePaul University

      Alexandra Bendixen University of Oldenburg

      Aaron S. Benjamin University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

      Jeanette M. Bennett University of North Carolina at Charlotte

      Kent C. Berridge University of Michigan

      G. E. Berrios University of Cambridge

      Joan Berzoff Smith College

      Deborah L. Best Wake Forest University

      Larry E. Beutler Palo Alto University

      Mark H. Bickhard Lehigh University

      Erin D. Bigler Brigham Young University

      Wendy C. Birmingham Brigham Young University

      Sidney J. Blatt Yale University

      Lucas Bloc Universidade de Fortaleza

      Alison Blodorn University of California, Santa Barbara

      Catherine M. Bohn-Gettler College of Saint Benedict–Saint John’s University

      Ashley L. Boris University of Manitoba

      Jan Born University of Tübingen

      Robert F. Bornstein Adelphi

      William Bradshaw Brigham Young University

      Julia Brandl University of Innsbruck

      Michael T. Brannick University of South Florida

      Michael T. Braun Virginia Tech

      Paul A. S. Breslin Monell Chemical Senses Center

      Gene Brewer Arizona State University

      Gary P. Brown Royal Holloway

      Gillian R. Brown University of St. Andrews

      Shanique G. Brown DePaul University

      Ross Buck University of Connecticut

      Lynn F. Bufka American Psychological Association

      Claus Bundesen University of Copenhagen

      Jennifer Byrd-Craven Oklahoma State University

      John T. Cacioppo University of Chicago

      Stephanie Cacioppo University of Chicago

      Christine A. Caldwell University of Stirling

      Jessica L. Calvi Oklahoma State University

      Margaret E. Cameron Wake Forest University

      Belinda Campos University of California, Irvine

      Jessica J. Carnevale The Ohio State University

      Astrid Carolus Wuerzburg University

      Kyrié Sue Carpenter AgeSong/Pacific Institute

      Matthew Carter Williams College

      Wayne F. Cascio University of Colorado Denver

      Clive Cazeaux Cardiff Metropolitan University

      Kai Qin Chan Radboud University Nijmegen

      Steven A. Chance University of Oxford

      Anthony Chemero University of Cincinnati

      Jie-Qi Chen Erikson Institute

      Benjamin Y. Cheung University of British Columbia

      Joseph Chilcot King’s College London

      Hyein Cho San Francisco State University

      John Chambers Christopher Dartmouth University

      Evangelia G. Chrysikou University of Kansas

      A. Timothy Church Washington State University

      Jan Cieciuch University of Finance and Management (Poland)

      D. Angus Clark Michigan State University

      Frederick D. Clavél Iowa State University

      Maurizio Codispoti University of Bologna

      Avraham Cohen City University of Seattle (Vancouver, BC, Canada)

      Ruth M. Colwill Brown University

      Patrick J. Cooper Florida Atlantic University

      Evan Copello University of North Florida

      Alison D. Cox University of Manitoba

      Thomas S. Critchfield Illinois State University

      Catharine P. Cross University of St. Andrews

      Christine Cuskley University of Edinburgh

      Ruud Custers University College London

      Martin Daly University of Missouri

      Stephen Darling Queen Margaret University

      Janet E. Davidson Lewis and Clark College

      Alan Davies University of Edinburgh

      Denise D. Davis Vanderbilt University

      Edward L. Deci University of Rochester

      Cody R. DeHaan University of Rochester

      Andrew R. Delamater Brooklyn College–City University of New York

      Andreas Demetriou University of Nicosia

      Kaleda K. Denton Carson Graham

      Jessica Dere University of Toronto Scarborough

      Bailey Devine Texas Christian University

      Sally S. Dickerson University of California, Irvine

      Kristin M. Divis University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

      Michael Domjan The University of Texas at Austin

      M. Brent Donnellan Texas A&M University

      Marc D. Donohue Johns Hopkins University

      John F. Dovidio Yale University

      Todd DuBose The Chicago School of Professional Psychology

      Lee Alan Dugatkin University of Louisville

      Frank Dumont McGill University

      Alice H. Eagly Northwestern University

      Paul Eastwick The University of Texas at Austin

      John E. Edlund Rochester Institute of Technology

      Christopher Edwards Palo Alto University

      Mark G. Ehrhart San Diego State University

      D. L. Eisenstein VA Healthcare System

      E. M. Eisenstein VA Healthcare System

      Lauren Emberson University of Rochester

      Jacob Feiner Engelskirger AgeSong/Pacific Institute

      Tracy Epton University of Manchester

      K. Anders Ericsson Florida State University

      Brenda Farnell University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

      Allison K. Farrell University of Minnesota

      Gordon B. Feld University of Tübingen

      Greg Feldman Simmons College

      Pere J. Ferrando Universitat Rovira i Virgili

      Vera Ferrari University of Parma

      Alexander J. Field Santa Clara University

      Rengin B. Firat University of Lyon

      William Fish Massey University

      Jane E. Fisher University of Nevada, Reno

      Donovan E. Fleming Brigham Young University

      Roland W. Fleming University of Giessen

      James R. Flynn University of Otago

      Meghan R. Fortune University of Illinois at Chicago

      Rebecca Rose Frausel University of Chicago

      Steven Frenda University of California, Irvine

      Carly K. Friedman University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio

      Marcello Gallucci University of Milano-Bicocca

      Edwin E. Gantt Brigham Young University

      Christina Garrison-Diehn University of Nevada, Reno

      Omar C. G. Gelo University of Salento and Sigmund Freud University

      Charles J. Gelso University of Maryland, College Park

      Walter Gerbino University of Trieste

      Kenneth J. Gergen Swarthmore College

      James I. Gerhart Rush University Medical Center

      Nancy Getchell University of Delaware

      Timo Giesbrecht Maastricht University

      Roger Giner-Sorolla University of Kent

      Peter Glick Lawrence University

      Ilya A. Gokhman Georgia Institute of Technology

      David A. Gold Washington University

      Nitsan Goldstein Williams College

      Gregory Gorelik Southwestern University

      Joseph P. Green The Ohio State University, Lima

      Kathleen N. Greenman Tufts University

      John D. Greenwood City College and Graduate Center, City University of New York

      Jeff Greeson University of Pennsylvania

      Jeremy D. Gretton The Ohio State University

      Elena L. Grigorenko Yale University

      Johanna Grosse Rush Unviersity Medical Center

      Akira S. Gutierrez Tufts University

      Thomas Hadjistavropoulos University of Regina

      Sebastian Hafenbrädl University of Lausanne

      Douglas Hall Hawaii Pacific University

      David Z. Hambrick Michigan State University

      Nayla R. Hamdi University of Minnesota

      J. Kiley Hamlin University of British Columbia

      Beate Hampe University of Erfurt

      Kathy A. Hanisch Iowa State University

      Blake D. Hansen Brigham Young University

      Daniel R. Hanson Marshfield Clinic

      Shlomo Hareli University of Haifa

      Trevor A. Harley University of Dundee

      Elise H. Harris Tufts University

      Stephen N. Haynes University of Hawaii at Manoa

      Jia He Tilburg University

      David M. Hedges Brigham Young University

      Dawson Hedges Brigham Young University

      Judith Hendry University of New Mexico

      Christine Hennighausen Wuerzburg University

      Gregg R. Henriques James Madison University

      Allan J. Heritage Vanderbilt University

      Hubert Hermans Radboud University of Nijmegen

      Jacob R. Hickman Brigham Young University

      J. Dee Higley Brigham Young University

      Clara E. Hill University of Maryland, College Park

      Steven Hitlin University of Iowa

      Stevan E. Hobfoll Rush University Medical Center

      Guy Hochman Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya

      Shaul Hochstein Hebrew University, Jerusalem

      Ulrich Hoffrage University of Lausanne

      Stefan G. Hofmann Boston University

      Rob W. Holland Radboud University Nijmegen

      Emily D. Hooker University of California, Irvine

      Mardi Horowitz University of California, San Francisco

      Arpine Hovasapian University of California, Irvine

      Lei Hu University of Manitoba

      Kate Hughes Birkbeck College

      Stephen Hupp Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

      Roos Hutteman Utrecht University

      Daniel C. Hyde University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

      Paul Ibbotson The Open University

      Spencer Irish Fresno State

      Joshua J. Jackson Washington University in St. Louis

      Eun Young Jang Brigham Young University

      Duane Jeffery Brigham Young University

      Jolanda Jetten University of Queensland

      Jeremy Jewell Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

      R. Burke Johnson University of South Alabama

      Donald Jones University of Central Florida

      Flávia M. Julio University of Manitoba

      Ellen M. Kaisse University of Washington

      Marc Kalin University of Miami Miller School of Medicine

      Rachel W. Kallen University of Cincinnati

      Irene P. Kan Villanova University

      Ruth Kanfer Georgia Institute of Technology

      Annette Karmiloff-Smith Birkbeck College, University of London

      Richard R. Kilburg RRK Coaching and Executive Development

      Peter R. Killeen Arizona State University

      Satoko Kimpara Palo Alto University

      Edward W. Kinghorn Brigham Young University–Hawaii

      Brock Kirwan Brigham Young University

      Julian Kiverstein University of Amsterdam

      Andrzej Klimczuk Warsaw School of Economics, Poland

      Ai Koizumi Columbia University

      Bryan Kolb University of Lethbridge

      Spee Kosloff Fresno State

      Margaret Bull Kovera John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York

      Steve W. J. Kozlowski Michigan State University

      Grzegorz Krajewski University of Warsaw

      Dennis L. Krebs Simon Fraser University

      Morten L. Kringelbach University of Oxford

      Jane Kroger University of Tromsø

      Robert F. Krueger University of Minnesota

      Revathy Kumar University of Toledo

      John E. Kurtz Villanova University

      Jennifer S. Labrecque University of Southern California

      Michael J. Lambert Brigham Young University

      Donald M. Lamkin University of California, Los Angeles

      Shelly J. Lane Virginia Commonwealth University

      Rachel Larson Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

      Hakwan Lau University of California, Los Angeles

      Helmut Leder University of Vienna

      Jeong Min Lee University of Delaware

      Cristine H. Legare The University of Texas at Austin

      Nicole Legate University of Rochester

      Mallorie Leinenger University of California, San Diego

      Richard M. Lerner Tufts University

      David Lewkowicz Florida Atlantic University

      Kenneth L. Lichstein University of Alabama

      Scott O. Lilienfeld Emory University

      Kristen A. Lindquist University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf University of Massachusetts Medical School

      David A. Lishner University of Wisconsin Oshkosh

      Stefano Livi University of Rome “Sapienza”

      Elizabeth F. Loftus University of California, Irvine

      Alexandra Woods Logue City University of New York

      Barbara Loken University of Minnesota

      Susan Longchamp University of Nevada, Reno

      Kelsey Loy Williams College

      Ruth Luckasson University of New Mexico

      George F. Luger University of New Mexico

      Patrick Luyten University of Leuven

      Steven Jay Lynn Binghamton University

      Carolyn MacCann University of Sydney

      Jennifer K. MacCormack University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Edouard Machery University of Pittsburgh

      James E. Maddux George Mason University

      Kirby Q. Maguire Simon Fraser University

      Brenda Major University of California, Santa Barbara

      Ken Manktelow University of Wolverhampton

      Jeanne Marecek Swarthmore College

      Julian N. Marewski University of Lausanne

      M. Jackson Marr Georgia Institute of Technology

      Takahiko Masuda University of Alberta

      Lourdes Mattei Hampshire College

      M. Pilar Matud Aznar Universidad de La Laguna

      Kurt Matzler Universität Innsbruck

      Joanne Mayoh Bournemouth University

      Kaitlin McCormick The Pennsylvania State University

      Christina S. McCrae University of Florida

      William F. McDaniel Georgia College & State University

      Elizabeth McKenney Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

      F. Joseph McLaughlin Vanderbilt University

      Harald Merckelbach Maastricht University

      Brian R. Metcalf Hawaii Pacific University

      Chelsey A. Michalyshyn University of Manitoba

      Brett M. Millar Graduate Center, City University of New York

      Mike Miller University of Connecticut

      Ronald Mellado Miller Brigham Young University–Hawaii

      Dennis E. Mithaug Teachers College Columbia University

      Aage R. Møller The University of Texas at Dallas

      Jay Moore University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee

      Jorge Morales Columbia University

      Caitlin E. Moran University of Alabama

      Virginia Moreira Universidade de Fortaleza

      Beth Morling University of Delaware

      Ezequiel Morsella San Francisco State University

      Katherine Muenks University of Maryland, College Park

      Gregory L. Murphy New York University

      Marcos Nadal University of Vienna

      Jessica Nave-Blodgett University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Robert A. Neimeyer University of Memphis

      Charles B. Nemeroff University of Miami

      Eryn J. Newman University of California, Irvine

      Thuy-vy Nguyen University of Rochester

      Gregory Nixon University of Northern British Columbia

      Georg Northoff University of Ottawa

      Justin M. Olds Université de Lausanne

      Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie Sam Houston State University

      Lisa M. Osbeck University of West Georgia

      Aliza A. Panjwani Graduate Center, City University of New York

      Laura Parks-Leduc James Madison University

      Rachel E. Pauletti Florida Atlantic University

      Joseph J. Pear University of Manitoba

      Haley Pemberton Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

      David G. Perry Florida Atlantic University

      Gretchen Perry University of Missouri

      Anna Ingeborg Petursdottir Texas Christian University

      Nicholas Phelan Rochester Institute of Technology

      David Pietraszewski Max Planck Institute for Human Development

      Juliana Pita Universidade de Fortaleza

      Joseph J. Plaud Applied Behavioral Consultants, LLC

      Alan Poling Western Michigan University

      Robert W. Proctor Purdue University

      John Protzko University of California, Santa Barbara

      Charis Psaltis University of Cyprus

      Sebastian Puschmann University of Oldenburg

      Philip Quinlan University of York

      Hugh Rabagliati University of Edinburgh

      Howard Rachlin Stony Brook University

      Timothy P. Racine Simon Fraser University

      Christopher H. Ramey University of Kansas

      Thomas Rammsayer University of Bern

      Keith Rayner University of California, San Diego

      Jamie Reilly University of Florida

      Chris Reinders Folmer Gent University and Erasmus School of Law

      Rainer Reisenzein University of Greifswald

      Steven Reiss The Ohio State University

      Tracey A. Revenson Hunter College and the Graduate Center, City University of New York

      Stacey Reynolds Virginia Commonwealth University

      Mijke Rhemtulla University of Amsterdam

      Frank C. Richardson The University of Texas at Austin

      Michael J. Richardson University of Cincinnati

      Lindsey Engle Richland University of Chicago

      Heiner Rindermann Chemnitz University of Technology

      Eunyoe Ro Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

      John Lloyd Roberts University of West Georgia

      Richard D. Roberts Professional Examination Services

      Laura Rogers Tufts University

      Emily Q. Rosenzweig University of Maryland

      Stephanie Rothman AgeSong/Pacific Institute

      Rachel O. Rubin Tufts University

      Shawn Rubin George Washington University

      Marika Rullo University of Rome “Sapienza”

      Daniel W. Russell Iowa State University

      Andrew G. Ryder Concordia University

      Valerie San Juan University of Calgary

      Diana Sanchez Rutgers University

      Curt A. Sandman University of California, Irvine

      J. S. M. Sarma VA Research System

      Shannon Sauer-Zavala Boston University

      Jeremy Sawyer The Graduate Center of the City University of New York

      Nicholas D. Schiff Weill Cornell Medical College

      Nathan D. Schilaty Brigham Young University

      Jeff Schimel University of Alberta

      Elizabeth R. Schotter University of California, San Diego

      Frank Schwab Wuerzburg University

      Shalom H. Schwartz The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

      Karl Schweizer Goethe University Frankfurt

      Nader Robert Shabahangi AgeSong/Pacific Institute

      Todd K. Shackelford Oakland University

      Paschal Sheeran University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Stephanie A. Shields The Pennsylvania State University

      Michelle N. Shiota Arizona State University

      Laurie J. Shrage Florida International University

      Adam J. Shriver University of Pennsylvania

      Allan Siegel New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University

      Jeffry A. Simpson University of Minnesota

      George M. Slavich University of California, Los Angeles

      Andrew P. Smiler Private Practice

      Alison Smith Williams College

      Paul F. Smith University of Otago

      Joel S. Snyder University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Cyndy Soto University of Nevada, Reno

      Susan C. South Purdue University

      George Spanoudis University of Cyprus

      Bettina Spencer Saint Mary’s College

      Len Sperry Florida Atlantic University

      David W. Staves Brigham Young University–Hawaii

      Conor M. Steckler University of British Columbia

      Aikaterini Stefanidi Arizona State University

      Scott C. Steffensen Brigham Young University

      Anna Stetsenko The Graduate Center of the City University of New York

      Jennifer A. Stevens William & Mary

      Richard J. Stevenson Macquarie University

      E. L. Stocks The University of Texas at Tyler

      Jennifer L. Stoner University of Minnesota

      Timo Storck University of Kassel

      Jeff Sugarman Simon Fraser University

      Michael J. Tarr Carnegie Mellon University

      Nathan A. Tatro American Psychological Association

      Robert Tett University of Tulsa

      Robert Thomas Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

      Roger K. Thomas University of Georgia

      Frederick Toates Open University

      Dejan Todorović University of Belgrade

      Matthew J. Traxler University of California, Davis

      Stefan Troche University of Bern

      Joshua M. Tybur VU University Amsterdam

      Bert N. Uchino University of Utah

      Robert J. Vallerand McGill University

      Katja Valli University of Turku

      Marcel A. G. van Aken Utrecht University

      Fons van de Vijver Tilburg University

      James Van Haneghan University of South Alabama

      Dalena van Heugten-van der Kloet University of Oxford

      Ad van Knippenberg Radboud University Nijmegen

      Christina Vanden Bosch der Nederlanden University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Zack Vanderbilt University of California, San Francisco

      William Vaughan, Jr. Casco Courseware, LLC

      Javier Virués-Ortega University of Auckland

      Chockalingam Viswesvaran Florida International University

      A. Davi Vitela University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Kim-Phuong L. Vu California State University, Long Beach

      Matthew W. Wagers University of California, Santa Cruz

      Nils-Frederic Wagner University of Ottawa

      Jessica Walburn King’s College London

      Iain Walker CSIRO-CELS

      Katie Wang Yale University

      Russell Jerome Watson Governors State University

      Rachel E. Watson-Jones The University of Texas at Austin

      Duane T. Theodore Wegener The Ohio State University

      John Weinman King’s College London

      Ian Q. Whishaw University of Lethbridge

      Jelte M. Wicherts Tilburg University

      Allan Wigfield University of Maryland

      Jade K. Wightman University of Manitoba

      Jennifer Wiley University of Illinois at Chicago

      Brian Wilkey The University of Texas at Austin

      Carla Willig City University London

      Paul T. P. Wong Trent University

      Dustin Wood Wake Forest University

      Wendy Wood University of Southern California

      Robert L. Woolfolk Rutgers University

      Ceren Yalin Tufts University

      Ann-Marie Yamada University of Southern California

      Jong Sung Yoon Florida State University

      Jeffrey M. Zacks Washington University in St. Louis

      Anna Zapiti University of Cyprus

      Josef Zihl University of Munich

      Philip G. Zimbardo Stanford University

      Kristina M. Zosuls Arizona State University

      Eileen L. Zurbriggen University of California, Santa Cruz


      Psychology is a play of theories, large and small, within the ambit of science. Psychology emerged from earlier sciences, especially experimental physiology, and from philosophy to become its own academic discipline in the late 19th century. Fashioned first in Germany, it soon found welcome in other European countries and in the United States. Today, it is worldwide and omnibus in its theoretical reach.

      Mature science is marked by a vigorous dialectic between theory and data. A theory is a statement intended to account for a category of phenomena. Theoretical statements occur in various forms and are both delimiting and generative of hypotheses. That is, hypotheses generally proceed from theories to inspire empirical marshaling of data that support hypotheses or, alternatively, sound their death knell. Sometimes, data are sufficiently decisive to wield the coup de grace to a theory.

      Mature science also is marked by convergence on a unified theory of everything. This aspiration remains unfulfilled across the sciences. Their histories are a repository of once-grand theories that dominated for a time, even a long time, but were eventually toppled or largely reframed by the usual nemesis—data. Psychology has had its share of grand theories, but they proved to be pretenders, and each of today’s contenders has a chorus of detractors. What you will learn from this encyclopedia is that the tent of psychological theory is capacious and crowded (see Appendix B). But the vacancy sign is still on. The encyclopedia exists as an invitation.

      The Design of the Encyclopedia for the Reader

      Each volume of the encyclopedia begins with a complete list of entries, which is followed by a Reader’s Guide. The Reader’s Guide is provided to assist readers in locating entries on related topics and classifies them into 21 thematic categories: Cognition, Consciousness, Culture, Development, Emotion, Evolution, Gender, Health, Intelligence, Language, Learning, Motivation, Neuroscience, Organizations, Perception, Personality, Psychopathology, Research Methods, Sensation, Sociality, and Therapy. Some entries are listed under more than one topic.

      The number of entries within a topic ranges from 9 to 23. Each entry ends with cross-references to related entries and a list of further readings recommended by the entry author(s). These features will further assist the reader in moving between the components of the encyclopedia that are directly relevant to his or her interests and also in extending those interests beyond the encyclopedia.

      The Editorial Process

      An editorial trio from SAGE oversaw the encyclopedia’s genesis and subsequent development and publication. The acquisitions editor was the first to contact me and did so at the urging of a former student of mine (Bill Buskist), who is a SAGE author. Our initial conversation led to my submission of a prospectus for a two-volume work. It was divided into several topics, each containing numerous subtopics. These were meant to demarcate sectors of active theorizing in psychology. All told, originally there were approximately 20 topics and 250 subtopics. In addition to the nominated subtopics, I proposed a distinctive feature of the encyclopedia—namely, the inclusion of “metatheoretical” entries, along with the larger helping of entries highlighting the current state of theory within a specific topic. The metatheoretical entries are marked by a deliberately critical pose toward that current state.

      The ultimate selection of topics and subtopics was helped by consultation with scholars whom I invited to compose the Editorial Board. In only one case (Brent Slife) was I personally acquainted with the invitee (Brent’s campus office is next door to mine). I asked each to review and revise the draft list of topics and subtopics and to nominate potential contributors as they felt inclined. Their responses were invaluable, and to them I express particular thanks for bringing the list of entries and authors to final shape.

      At about this same time, the oversight of the project moved to the developmental editor and the reference systems manager at SAGE. My closest interaction was with them. Over a 3-year period, I personally contacted hundreds of scholars throughout the world with the invitation to contribute an entry to the encyclopedia. In addition to designating a specific subtopic, I indicated a desired length and deadline and provided the publisher’s instructions to authors. You will not be surprised to learn that not every invitation was accepted by the initial invitee. In some cases, he or she was kind enough to recommend others in his or her stead. But just as often, it was mine to return to the published literature in search of new prospects.

      Draft entries began to arrive and continued until recently. I reviewed and edited each, and then returned it to the author with the request to provide further revisions as he or she saw fit before sending the final draft to the reference systems manager. Subsequently, I reviewed the revised draft, sometimes returning it to the author with a request for further revision. Eventually, each entry was accepted in final draft and forwarded to the developmental editor for review and copyediting by her staff. In each case, I received the copyedited draft for final editorial review prior to submission to the production editor. I also compiled the Chronology and Resource Guide (Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively), and the Bibliography (Appendix C) was compiled from the further readings provided by the authors. My final opportunity for review came with the proof copy for each entry as well as the front and back material for the encyclopedia.

      Throughout this process, my sights were set on the publication of a knowledgeable and extensive resource that would serve well as a new addition to libraries across the world and, in that way, serve well their clienteles—undergraduate and graduate students, instructors in psychology and related courses, and those in the general public with a hankering to know more about psychology and its potential assets for better living.

      Caveats and Expressions of Gratitude

      From the outset, I sought to bring together a diverse array of authors in terms of ethnicity, nationality, institutional affiliation, specialty, and authorial style. You may sense that on these criteria, certain elements of the encyclopedia’s authorship are underrepresented. Moreover, you may perceive an overrepresentation of authorship from my own institution, Brigham Young University. Please be aware, however, that in each case, I am prepared to argue from the author’s bona fides for his or her expertise.

      In addition, you may find your own subspecialty or subspecialties of interest to be underrep-resented. Even though two volumes are a generous provision, eventually there were hard decisions about the final collection of headwords. I am the first to recognize that the encyclopedia will not be comprehensive to every reader’s liking.

      Moreover, you may find unevenness between a topic’s entries in terms of the breadth or depth of the presentation of theory therein. Please be advised that there was no template the presentation was required to fit. Authors were on their own to treat theory as they best judged, subject to the constraints of the review process. I considered this granting of latitude to be consistent with the founding desire for diversity. If you are put off by this caveat or the two that preceded it, I accept full responsibility and offer my apology.

      Finally, I write from the heart. The conception and development of this encyclopedia is the largest sustained project in which I have engaged during my professorial career. It unfolded in the context of full-time teaching, mentorship of undergraduate and doctoral students, research and research-centered writing and publication, other faculty assignments, and duties attendant to serving in my community as a member of its municipal council. The project was an ever-present consideration and, over time, became a labor of love.

      My debt to the authors, the editors, and the members of the Editorial Board is deep and lasting. That these two volumes prove illuminating, instructive, substantive, and inspiring for their readers will be attributable to those I have acknowledged and will be partial reward for what has required thousands of hours by hundreds of devoted contributors.

      Last, I humbly recognize the unsurpassing influence of three mentors who taught me about theory in psychology and, in their remarkable work, deftly exemplified its virtues: Richard Herrnstein, Peter Killeen, and Will Vaughan.

    • Appendix A<span class="hi-italic">A Propaedeutic Chronology</span>

      The listing that follows is theorist oriented, selective, and approximate in pointing to the advent of the theorist’s influence. It ends in 1970 for two reasons. The first is a discernible consensus among historians of psychology about the figures whose theoretical work was particularly notable prior to that date. Nearly all who appear on the list are deceased. The second reason is the historians’ implication that more time should pass before extending the list with similar confidence. This encyclopedia provides a panoramic view of the possibilities.

      Appendix B<span class="hi-italic">Resource Guide to Scholarly Journals and Professional Associations</span>

      This guide points to further resources for theory in psychology as well as to a synergy between the publications it lists and the scholarly associations that appear subsequently. Often the latter are publishers of the former.


      American Behavioral Scientist

      American Journal of Orthopsychiatry (ISSN)1939-0025

      The American Journal of Psychiatry

      American Journal of Psychology

      American Journal of Psychotherapy

      American Psychologist

      Annual Review of Psychology

      Asian American Journal of Psychology

      Asian Journal of Social Psychology (ISSN)1467-839X

      Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics

      Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology

      The Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist

      Australian Journal of Psychology (ISSN)1742-9536

      Australian Psychologist (ISSN)1742-9544

      Basic and Applied Social Psychology GnLHn93w

      The Behavior Analyst

      Behavioral and Brain Sciences

      Behavioral Development Bulletin

      Behavioral Neuroscience

      Behavior Research Methods

      Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice

      Behavior Research and Therapy

      Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy


      Brain and Language

      British Journal of Clinical Psychology (ISSN)2044-8260

      British Journal of Health Psychology (ISSN)2044-8287

      British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology (ISSN)2044-8317

      British Journal of Psychology (ISSN)2044-8295

      British Journal of Social Psychology (ISSN)2044-8309

      Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportment

      Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie expérimentale

      Canadian Psychologist/Psychologie canadienne

      Cerebral Cortex

      Child Development (ISSN)1467-8624

      Child Psychology and Psychiatry Review

      Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology

      Clinical Psychological Science

      Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience

      Cognitive Therapy and Research

      Consciousness and Cognition

      Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research

      Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice

      Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology

      Current Directions in Psychological Science

      Current Research in Social Psychology


      Developmental Psychology

      Development and Psychopathology


      Ecological Psychology

      Educational Psychology

      Educational Psychology Review


      European Journal of Behavior Analysis

      European Journal of Cognitive Psychology

      European Journal of Developmental Psychology

      European Journal of Neuroscience (ISSN)1460-9568

      European Journal of Personality (ISSN)1099-0984

      European Journal of Social Psychology (ISSN)1099-0992

      European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology

      European Psychologist

      Europe’s Journal of Psychology

      Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences

      Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology

      Families, Systems, & Health

      Frontiers in Psychology

      Gestalt Theory

      Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice

      Health Psychology

      Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences

      History of Psychology

      Humanistic Psychologist

      The Humanistic Psychologist

      Industrial and Organizational Psychology (ISSN)1754-9434

      International Journal of Behavior Development

      International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

      International Journal of Psychology

      International Journal of Stress Management

      International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation

      The Japanese Journal of Psychology

      The Japanese Journal of Cognitive Psychology

      Japanese Journal of Social Psychology

      Japanese Psychological Research (ISSN)1468-5884

      Journal of Abnormal Psychology

      Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

      Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (ISSN)1938-3703

      Journal of Applied Psychology

      Journal of Applied Social Psychology (ISSN)1559-1816

      Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

      Journal of Comparative Psychology

      Journal of Consciousness Studies

      Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology

      Journal of Counseling Psychology

      Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology

      Journal of Educational Psychology

      Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition

      Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied

      Journal of Experimental Psychology: General

      Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance

      Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition

      Journal of Family Psychology

      Journal of Health Psychology

      Journal of Homosexuality

      Journal of Humanistic Psychology

      Journal of Latina/o Psychology

      The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease

      Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics

      Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology (ISSN)2044-8325

      Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

      The Journal of Psychology

      Journal of Psychology in Africa

      Journal of Psychotherapy Integration

      Journal of Research in Personality

      Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy

      The Journal of Sex Research

      Journal of Social & Psychological Sciences

      Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association

      Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (ISSN)1938-3711

      Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology

      Journal of Threat Assessment and Management

      Korean Journal of Psychology: General

      Law and Human Behavior

      Learning & Behavior

      Memory & Cognition

      Mind & Language (ISSN)1468-0017

      Motivation Science

      Music Perception



      New Ideas in Psychology

      New Zealand Journal of Psychology

      Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology


      Perceptual and Motor Skills

      Personal Relations (ISSN)1475-6811

      Personality and Individual Differences

      Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin

      Personality and Social Psychology Review

      Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment

      Perspectives on Psychological Science

      Professional Psychology: Research and Practice

      Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal

      PsyCh Journal (ISSN)2046-0260

      Psychoanalytic Psychology

      Psychological Assessment

      Psychological Bulletin

      Psychological Medicine

      Psychological Methods

      Psychological Reports

      Psychological Review

      Psychological Science

      Psychological Science in the Public Interest

      Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy

      The Psychologist-Manager Journal

      Psychology and Aging

      Psychology & Neuroscience

      Psychology of Addictive Behaviors

      Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts

      Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice

      Psychology of Men & Masculinity

      Psychology of Music

      Psychology of Popular Media Culture

      Psychology of Religion and Spirituality

      Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity

      Psychology of Violence

      Psychology of Women Quarterly

      Psychology, Public Policy, and Law


      Psychonomic Bulletin & Review


      Qualitative Psychology

      Quality and Quantity: International Journal of Methodology

      Rehabilitation Psychology

      Review of General Psychology

      Review of Philosophy and Psychology


      South African Journal of Psychology

      Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

      Stigma and Health

      Theory & Psychology

      Thinking and Reasoning

      Translational Issues in Psychological Science


      Trends in Cognitive Sciences

      Universitas Psychologica

      Vision Research

      Visual Cognition

      Work & Stress

      Scholarly Associations and Societies

      Acoustical Society of America

      American Academy of Pain Management

      American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

      American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

      American Counseling Association

      American Educational Research Association

      American Group Psychotherapy Association

      American Philosophical Association

      American Philosophical Society

      American Psychoanalytic Association

      American Psychological Association1

      American Society on Aging

      American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

      Animal Behavior Society

      Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback

      Association for Behavior Analysis International

      Association for Humanistic Psychology

      Association for Psychological Science

      Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness

      Association for the Study of Dreams

      Behavior Genetics Association

      British Association for Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapies

      British Neuroscience Association

      British Psychological Society

      Canadian Psychological Association

      Cognitive Neuroscience Society

      Cognitive Science Society

      Committee for Skeptical Inquiry

      European Association of Personality Psychology

      European Association of Psychological Assessment

      European Brain Behaviour Society

      European Society for Cognitive Psychology

      Federation of Associations in Behavioral & Brain Sciences

      Federation of European Neuroscience Societies

      The Gerontological Society of America

      Human Behavior and Evolution Society

      Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

      International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology

      International Association of Applied Psychology

      International Behavioral Neuroscience Society

      International Brain Research Organization2

      The International Society for Psychophysics

      International Society for the Study of Individual Differences

      International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders

      International Society for the Traumatic Stress Studies

      International Society for Theoretical Psychology

      International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology

      International Society of the Learning Sciences

      The International Congress of Infant Studies

      International Union of Psychological Science3

      The New Zealand Psychological Society

      Psychological Society of South Africa

      Psychometric Society

      The Psychonomic Society

      Society for a Science of Clinical Psychology

      Society for Computers in Psychology

      Society for Consumer Psychology

      Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology

      Society for Judgment and Decision Making

      Society for Neuroscience

      Society for Personality and Social Psychology

      Society for Psychophysiological Research

      Society for Research in Adult Development

      Society for the Quantitative Analyses of Behavior

      The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues

      Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology

      The Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality

      World Federation for Mental Health

      1The divisions of the American Psychological Association are listed at

      2This entity maintains a listing of national neuroscience societies at

      3This entity maintains a country-by-country listing of psychological associations at

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