Crisis-related interventions consist of three phases: (1) information, (2) training, and (3) support. Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) follows this model and is designed to provide a framework for organizations, communities, and other groups to plan, prepare, respond to, and cope with the impact of disasters and crises. The goals of CISM are to mitigate the psychological impact of critical incidents and facilitate psychological closure. CISM techniques and components can be customized to address the particular needs of the specific affected group requiring the intervention. In addition, the approach provides for precrisis planning and education, on-scene support, and postcrisis specific interventions such as follow-up screening for referral.

Historical Context

During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the first systemic efforts toward mitigating the negative psychological effects of trauma ...

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