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The couples, family, and relational models of counseling present a general shift in thinking about the causes and solutions to human problems. Whereas most individual or intrapsychic counseling theories view both the origin and the solution to problems as occurring within the individual person (i.e., the individual psyche), the couples, family, and relational models assume an interpersonal perspective in which problems and their solutions are viewed as occurring and being resolved through the interactions of individuals within their immediate social environments. Family interactions are of particular importance because they are seen as the model for the relationships that individual family members have in most other contexts of their lives. From a couples, family, and relational counseling perspective, problems are viewed as circular rather than linear ...

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