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Cerebral electric stimulation (CES) consists of noninvasive techniques in which varying levels of electricity are passed across the scalp of an individual using at least one electrode to treat a variety of health-related issues. The tremendous technological advances of the past 100 years have greatly influenced the ways mental health practitioners use electric stimulation. Styles and use of CES differ based on electric dosage as well as electrode placement. While CES is most commonly used for chronic pain, anxiety, and depression, increased research is examining the practicality of this practice in the treatment of other mental and physical health issues.

Historical Context

The use of electricity as a form of medical treatment has a long history in medical literature. Early Greek literature includes discussions of “electric fish” ...

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