Emojis and Emoticons

Computer-mediated communication (CMC) offers instant gratification by enabling users to send and receive messages without delay. However, even with the capabilities of instant communication, CMC is a “lean” media due to the inability to experience nonverbal cues. The lack of nonverbal cues decreases users’ understanding, retention, connectedness, and intimacy. In the past, paralinguistic cues (PLCs) described physical cues (e.g., hand gestures or body language) used to communicate without words. In the digital era, PLCs also describe the one-click cues used to enhance online communication without exchanging additional words. PLCs can be used to show support, nurture relationships, and increase the efficiency of CMC. PLCs include the use of acronyms, emojis or emoticons, shortening/contractions, unconventional spelling, or likes to insinuate that a receiver saw and reacted ...

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