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Technological advances have propelled the scientific understanding of the human brain at an extraordinary rate. Computer-assisted tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have produced images that are allowing scientists to gain a better understanding of the structure of the brain. At the same time, positron emission tomography, single photon emission tomography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are enabling new insights into how the brain functions and its association with human behavior. Such technology promises an ever-clearer picture of both how the brain works and what it does. Critics, however, voice concerns that these advances may well come at the expense of privacy, freedom, and human dignity. This entry begins with predictions about the advancement and use of neuroscience and brain biology; then it discusses ...

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