India is the largest democracy in the world; however, it is also widely recognized as one of the most corrupt. It also lacks a national privacy policy. Since 2011, instituting such a policy has been discussed, but none has yet emerged. As of 2016, only 18% of the population has Internet access, although more than 70% use cell phones. The country also has numerous serious internal and external security concerns, which necessitate a robust surveillance program. India’s privacy laws are examined in this entry, followed by a look at the nation’s internal and external security concerns. The current state and future of India’s surveillance programs are also reviewed.

Current Privacy Laws

In the case of People’s Union for Civil Liberties v. Union of India & Anr (1997), ...

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