This entry examines security and privacy-invasive surveillance operations in China. Following Edward Snowden’s leak of classified information about invasive U.S. intelligence agency practices in 2013, Snowden’s request to the Chinese government for asylum remained unanswered. It seems as though Chinese government officials did not want to attract attention to their own privacy-invasive surveillance programs. Prior to the leaks, top Chinese leaders avoided discussion of surveillance and denied claims of utilizing intrusive techniques; however, global and domestic activist groups have claimed that the Chinese government has breached legal rights guaranteed to citizens by the Chinese constitution and by international agreements signed by the Chinese government.

China’s surveillance penetration of the public is regarded as comprehensive, with the authorities maintaining jurisdiction over numerous channels of surveillance, including social ...

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