In Canada, security, surveillance, and privacy have developed lockstep with those in other Anglo-Western countries, positioning Canada as a case study of new developments. Canada, however, differs from some Anglo-Western jurisdictions, notably the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, in having superior, albeit still weak, legal privacy protections.


If video monitoring is an exemplar of surveillance patterns, then surveillance has been expanding in Canada for decades. Commencing with private establishment video surveillance in banks and retail shops, open-street or public surveillance cameras were then rolled out at the local level, in some cases inspired by the United Kingdom’s embrace of these technologies but not in a manner that mirrored that country’s centralized funding arrangements. Video surveillance has since gone mobile via various forms, including in ...

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