Amnesty International was founded in 1961 with the goal of defending individual freedom of expression. As the debate over liberty versus security has unfurled, particularly in the shadow of the global War on Terror, Amnesty International has become an outspoken critic of expanded governmental surveillance and the dearth of regulation of the technology that facilitates it. Amnesty International continues to work to protect individuals by publicizing specific cases of state surveillance, harassment, and severe punishment of individuals for their online activity, but today, it also focuses on systemic issues stemming from electronic monitoring and electronic data collection. This has manifested in three significant ways. First, following Edward Snowden’s revelations about governments’ mass surveillance and data collection, Amnesty International has brought legal challenges against the surveillance ...

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