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The War on Terror refers to the military campaign initiated by the United States to prosecute those directly responsible for the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, as well as those individuals, groups, and/or states that provide support to international terrorism. As defined by the Department of Defense, the primary enemies of the War on Terror are transnational extremist organizations, networks, and individuals and their state and nonstate supporters. The common pattern among these groups is that they exploit Islam and use terrorism for ideological ends.

The philosophy and operations of the War on Terror have drastically affected the way in which the U.S. government conducts surveillance on national and international terrorist groups, raising concerns about the infringement of ...

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