Torture is the intentional infliction of physical, psychological, or emotion pain to cause injury to a person or cause the person to act against his or her will. The reasons for torture include punishment, revenge, deterrence, and interrogation. The motivation behind the use of torture can be related to privacy, security, and surveillance, as at least one of these is typically found as the underlying reason for the use of torture.

Surveillance, for example, is one of the oldest techniques for controlling social behavior. Jeremy Bentham is credited as being one of the earliest criminologists who crafted the idea of the Panopticon, which is arguably the first significant use of surveillance in a secure setting with no regard for privacy as in the modern period. ...

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