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Surveillance deterrence is the general term used to signify the use of surveillance technologies to deter crime and criminal behavior in public spaces. The basic premise behind surveillance deterrence has a long history dating back at least to early-19th-century Europe. In recent years, with the development and sophistication of video cameras, microphones, fiber optic lines, network telecommunications nodes, Global Positioning System, and wireless networks, reliance on surveillance deterrence has grown exponentially. The introduction of closed-circuit television systems led to limited video surveillance in the 1970s and 1980s. The integration of military night-vision technology and the mass production of analog video equipment helped spread its adoption into high crime areas and vulnerable banking and commercial institutions. The evolution of video camera technology and microphones into ...

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