Authoritarian surveillance and social control, as well as authoritarian rule, have been more the norm than the exception in modern Spain. In the 20th century, there were almost 35 years of military rule (General Primo de Rivera between 1923 and 1930 and Francisco Franco Bahamonde, El Generalísimo, between 1939 and 1975), a civil war (1936–1939), and several episodes of military upheaval. The recent history of Spain shows a stubborn continuity of surveillance, control, domination, and revanchism as a political strategy and social dynamic, as well as a continued interest in the classification of its citizens.

Therefore, while the first few years of Franco’s military dictatorship can be identified as one of the most vicious periods in terms of control and surveillance, some of the social and ...

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