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The scaffold, earlier called a matrix, is a three-dimensional material composed of either chemically fabricated materials or native molecules. In tissue engineering, it provides a framework on which cells organize so that they can execute the repairing or replacing function. The scaffold is one of the three essential components necessary to construct a biological substitute; others are cells and a bioreactor in which the cells and scaffold become integrated. A wide range of permanent or biodegradable materials has been used to scaffold biological components. Since the ideal scaffolds used in tissue engineering must be able to actively interact with biological components that house the seeded cells, they should possess certain surface properties, sufficient space, and mechanical strength that favor cell adhesion, promote cell growth, and ...

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