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Spinal cord injury (SCI) refers to any injury to the spinal cord that is caused by trauma to the spine that may result in a temporary or permanent loss of normal motor, sensory, and autonomic function. The incidence of spinal cord injuries in the general population ranges from 27 to 47 cases per million per year.

Spinal cord injuries can occur as a result of traffic accidents, falls, sports injuries, and firearm injuries, with traffic accidents being the leading cause worldwide. Spinal cord and spinal nerve damage may also be associated with vertebral fractures, vertebral infections, tumors, vascular disorders, and both primary and secondary herniated discs. Patients with spinal cord injuries usually have devastating neurological deficits and disabilities that are often permanent. Research is underway ...

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